- Developed by Russell Ackoff, leading American management expert.
- According to him the main value of planning is in the process of making them not in the plan as such.
- Companies should minimize the need for retrospective planning (e.g. planning to eliminate deficiencies formed by previous decisions)in the future (certainty, uncertainty and ignorance)
- Reasonably certain future – commitment planning
- Uncertain future – Contingency planning
- Ignorance in future – Responsiveness planning